Filename extension: .pgm
Developed by: Jef Poskanzer
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The PGM file format, short for Portable Graymap, is an image file format designed to enable a grayscale image to be easily exchanged between different platforms and software. Created as part of the Netpbm project, it has become one of the simplest and most ubiquitous formats for grayscale images. The Netpbm formats, which also include Portable Bitmap (PBM) and Portable Pixmap (PPM), were developed to provide an outlet for image files that were easily manipulable by text processing and image conversion tools.

How PGM Files Work

PGM files consist of a header section that includes the file type, width, height, and the maximum grayscale value, followed by pixel data that represents each pixel's intensity. The format supports two types of encodings: ASCII (plain text) and binary, with the latter being more efficient in terms of file size. The simplicity of PGM means that it can be easily read and written by software, aiding in its adoption for various applications in image processing and computer vision.

Software for PGM Files

Many software applications support the PGM format due to its simplicity and flexibility. Image manipulation programs like Adobe Photoshop, GIMP, and IrfanView offer PGM compatibility. In addition, programming libraries such as OpenCV and ImageMagick facilitate the use of PGM files in software development, particularly for research and development in image analysis.

Alternative File Formats

Despite its widespread use, PGM has contemporaries and successors that offer advantages in particular scenarios. The JPEG format, for instance, is better for compressed photographic images, while PNG provides lossless compression with support for grayscale, color, and transparency. For those dealing in exclusively vector images, formats like SVG may be more appropriate. Furthermore, newer formats like WebP and AVIF are emerging as efficient alternatives that cover a broad spectrum of image needs, including impressive compression and quality.

In summary, the PGM file format remains an enduring standard for grayscale image exchange due to its simplicity and cross-platform compatibility. Its support by a wide array of software makes it a practical choice, while newer alternatives may be better suited for specific use cases requiring advanced features or greater compression.

Supported converters for PGM files

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